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A gyroscope is a type of sensor that can sense twisting and turning motions.
Often paired with an accelerometer, you can use these to do 3D motion capture and inertial measurement (that is - you can tell how an object is moving!)
This breakout board is based around the L3GD20 from STMicro. It's the upgrade to the L3G4200 (see this app note on what to look for if upgrading an existing design to the L3GD20) with three full axes of sensing.
Getting started is easy - simply connect SDA to your Arduino I2C data pin (On the UNO this is A4), SCL to I2C clock (Uno: A5), GND to ground, and Vin to 3 or 5VDC. Then install and run Adafruits easy to use Arduino library, which will print out the XYZ sensor data to the serial terminal. The library also supports SPI on any 4 digital I/O pins, see the example for wiring.